Attachment theorists say bonding is critical in child development, writes BENEDICT CAREY
CHILDREN aren't the only ones showing off at the playground. Parents are on display too: There are the playful moms and dads, swinging on the monkey bars; the bookworms and cell phone gossips, their minds elsewhere; the anxiety-prone, shadowing their child's every step as if it could be the last; and those who continually bark instructions (“William, now what do we call that? William, what do we say to that boy? William!”).
As natural as it comes to some, parenting is for others a work in progress. In part, psychiatrists say, this is because mothers and fathers often repeat some of the same gestures, patterns and habits of their own parents. These habits are more than mere quirks. As several years-long research studies now show, children who grow up with a warm, stable connection to their parents (or other caregivers) are primed to form the same kind of connection later on, whereas those who start with uncertain or anxious bonds often struggle to forge close relationships as adults, even with their own children.
The study of these parent-child bonds and their consequences is known as “attachment theory”, a field of psychology that over the years has inspired both scientifically rigorous research and a stream of unsubstantiated, quick-fix parenting therapies, from simple advice to touch and hug children more often to more forceful “rebirthing” techniques to induce attachment.
Yet recent studies underscoring the lasting effect of a loving, attentive caregiver have generated a surge of renewed interest among family researchers and therapists about the notion of attachment. More than a dozen new books based on attachment have landed in bookstores over the last year, from parenting guides to scholarly works. A wide range of attachment-based research is underway, from studies of mothers in the San Francisco Bay Area to female prison inmates in Baltimore, to low-income families in New York.
“The revolution has happened,” said Victoria Levin, a behavioural research specialist at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. “Attachment theory is now the background and backbone of a lot of the work that's going on in families with young children. This is because researchers who started out studying infants have followed these children into adolescence. They find that the quality of their original attachment still predicts a child's competence, the way they interact with other people, how they do in school, whether they have behaviour problems, and on and on.''
Current studies attempt to teach parents the theory, in effect, so that they can apply it themselves. At University of California, San Francisco, Dr Alicia Lieberman has worked with immigrant families and victims of domestic abuse, showing them how stress and painful memories can interfere with attentive parenting.
Jude Cassidy, a psychologist at the University of Maryland, is running a programme for about 100 inmates at a Baltimore prison, teaching them how to see their young children's behaviour and body language as attachment students would. And at the Marycliff Institute, a family counselling centre, psychologists are significantly improving relations between parents and preschool children in an experiment called the Circle of Security.
Cammy Latimer, an elder-care worker in Spokane, Washington, had her hands full with two young children when she heard about this study. Her youngest child, Alyxandria, then two, was prone to tantrums and defiance. “Once I had a stranger come up to me and actually say something about it,” she said. “It wasn't much different from what I see other kids do, but at that point I was interested to try anything that could help me with her.”
Latimer liked the fact that the programme used a single image – a circle – to help explain how attachment worked. From a very early age, the theory goes, children move away from their parents to explore but continually circle back, using their parents as a “secure base”. An infant crawling around a new room continually looks to her parent, for reassurance or attention, and periodically reaches out to be held. Children repeat the same loops – moving away to explore, reaching or looking back to touch base – as they get older, whether investigating a playground as a toddler, playing in the backyard with a new friend or phoning from a party.
In theory, the ideal parent does several things: encourages exploration, remains alert for the child's cues and signals for reassurance or shared emotion, and then responds to those cues by offering comfort.
“It's a dance between the child and parent, with rhythm and timing, and it's going on all the time, from a very early age,” said Kent Hoffman, a psychologist at Marycliff who designed the programme with two colleagues, Bert Powell and Glen Cooper.
To picture this circle, counsellors asked Latimer and Alyxandria to participate in a classic attachment experiment called the Strange Situation.
As observers watch through two-way mirrors, a mother and young child are led into a small waiting room where a box of toys is in plain view. The mother then leaves the room, so that the child is alone with the stranger. Infants and toddlers who become upset when their mother leaves and then reunite warmly when she returns are thought to be securely attached.
“All sorts of things go on during this interaction, but you're watching the reunion very closely,” said Dr Robert Marvin, a researcher at the University of Virginia who is working with the Marycliff group. “What you want to see is for the child to show need openly and for that need to be filled,” by a quick glance, a gesture, a smile, a touch – any intimate signal.
However trivial they might seem, these small exchanges are physically shaping a child's brain and body as he or she grows, new research shows. A mother's caress or comfort not only lowers the amount of stress hormones circulating in the child's blood, for instance, it also helps teach the child's body to regulate its own response to upsetting events in the future.
“The idea is that we are born to form attachments, that our brains are physically wired to develop in tandem with another's, through emotional communication, beginning before words are spoken,” said Allan Schore, a UCLA behaviour specialist and leading attachment expert. “If these things go awry, you're going to have seeds of psychological problems, of difficulty coping, stress in human relations, substance abuse, those sorts of problems later on.”
In two years, Hoffman, Cooper and Powell have guided more than 70 parents and their children through the programme. Some parents are too reluctant to allow their children to explore, perhaps because their own overprotectiveness is contributing to their toddler's neediness and reluctance to explore. Others discover they are often too busy multi-tasking on the phone or doing other chores to notice when their children circle back for a comforting smile or remark. The researchers say they have documented significant improvements in attachment in three of four families.
Those results, while encouraging, are preliminary, the researchers say. It is too soon to know whether the improvements will endure or how well similar attachment programmes will work among different groups of parents. L. Alan Sroufe, a child development researcher at the University of Minnesota, says only time will tell. “I do not doubt that people can change – of course they can. But usually it doesn't happen quickly.” – LAT-WP
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