The 35-year-old Pathan, who played a key role in India's inaugural Twenty20 World Cup triumph in 2007, played 29 Tests, 120 ODIs and 24 T20 matches.
"I am announcing retirement from all forms of cricket. I have been fortunate to share the dressing room with greats of the game like (Sourav) Ganguly, (Rahul) Dravid, and (VVS) Laxman. I am calling time on my career," said Pathan.
"I would like to thank my family for providing much-needed support. I would like to thank my fans. They have always hoped for my comeback. Their support has kept me going."
Pathan, a left-arm quick, claimed 301 international wickets including a Test hat-trick against arch-rivals Pakistan in 2006.
But the high point of his career was the man of the match performance with his bowling figures of 3-16 in the team's World T20 title win in Johannesburg.
An attacking left-handed batsman, Pathan has registered one Test century but fell off the selector's radar after his final T20 against South Africa in 2012.
He now runs a cricket academy with his half brother Yusuf Pathan and does Hindi commentary.
"I will keep contributing to Indian cricket, but it is always better if someone else takes my place in domestic cricket.
"There are a lot of other things in store for me now and I will keep focusing on them," Pathan told Star Sports.
"In domestic cricket, too, I have been part of Jammu and Kashmir cricket and after last season, I thought what's the motivation to play any more?" - AFP